GLOSSARY (CD-CDR)        >home   
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Compact Disk, conceived as early as 1979; actually became a reality in 1982; gradually overtook LP sales around 1993. In addition to its "compact" size, the most important feature of the CD is ERROR CORRECTION (built into the players), which allows moderately scratched disks to still play with no audible clicks. Because a scratched LP has audible clicks and is ruined by any scratching, the CD quickly overtook the LP in popularity.
Compact Disk Recordable, conceived in 1988, brought to realization by Taiyo Yuden in 1989;  Became popular around when 1995 when media prices decreased to about $15 from their original pricing of $75 each;  Originally designed to be a "test reference" for factory CD runs. There are now multiple uses for CDR. With unit costs for quality Taiyo Yuden moving lower, volume production is now practical with CDR technology. One in a thousand audio players may not be able to play a CDR. Read problems with DATA CDRs are extremely rare.
Red Book
The International standard for CD audio. All audio CDs and CDRs (finalized) are "Red Book". Playback machines can vary greatly in their interpretation of E-32 errors, which when created cause a disk to be "out of spec" and rejected for Factory (Red Book compliant) replication. CD-DA (Redbook Digital Audio) is 16 bit. Newer equipment can "process" audio at 24 bit, but it's all dithered down to 16 bit eventually because all CD Players read only 16 bit data.
E-32 error
Troublesome CDR digital error. Masters must be E-32 error free. References can have these errors. The E-32 is garbage data caused by the CDR laser shutting on and off in  "Track-At-Once" mode. Most players today ignore these errors, but older machines may interpret them as a clicks or pops. Professional mastering studios always produce E-32 ERROR FREE disks. At GDA, our Masters are
guaranteed to run at all  Replication Facilities .
CDR Duplication
Also known as "short runs". CDR copies from a Master or Reference in any quantity. Jobs can be as few as one or as many as one thousand. Practically, most jobs fall in the 20-500 range. Typical orders are 25/50/100/200/500.
Factory  CDs
True CDs,  just like the ones you buy in the store. The minimum quantity is 500. Most jobs start at 1,000 units.
Jewel Box
Industry standard CD/CDR case which allows for inserts; composed of two parts: the box (clear) and tray (may be black or clear).
Slimline Jewel Box
1/8" Thick Jewel Box allows for front insert only. Compact and becoming very popular. GDA stocks the
premium quality Imation brand.
Front Booklet
The front insert for a Jewel Box. A 4/1 four panel is
a folded rectangle with color print on the front and
reverse, and B&W on the inside. This is the most popular
format. Six and Eight panel booklets are also possible; not to be confused with a "J-card" (cassette insert).
Rear Traycard
The rear insert for a Jewel Box. The printable area on
the side is called the "siderib".
Alternate CD case that's clear rigid unbreakable plastic. They're about half as thin as a Jewel Box, 80% of the area, and about 50% of the weight! Trimpaks are very useful for mailouts, promotions, data replication and economy CD runs. Trimpaks do not accomodate inserts.
Pre-Master CD. Actually a CDR Master used for Factory CDs. It's a term created for the Sony/Sonic Solutions format, but used generically today.
The common name for a PMCD. Must be E-32 error-free.
Created by professional Mastering Engineers.
Glass Master
This is the only "true" Master and is created at the Factory. It's made of Glass coated by a chemical, which is burned off with a laser. The Glass Master is a "Negative". It mimics the pit geometry of the PMCD. It's then metalized with a molten nickel compound and turned into a  "Stamper". The stamper punches tiny pits in a CD much the same way a "Stamper" was used to press grooves in LPs back in the olden days of vinyl.
Film & Matchprints
The film negatives and Colorart proofs required for 4-color offset printing of inserts, as well as the film positives for CD  silk-screen printing. Artwork in  electronic format is useless without your Film & Matchprints!
CD Screen
(Also called
CD Label)
The inked artwork that coats a Factory CD. It's a highly toxic quick drying ink that requres special handling. It's squeegeed on much the same way a T-shirt is silk-screened. The first two colors are free, and additional colors are extra per color/per disk. It's possible, but costly to do "full color" printing on a CD. The colors are
"Solid Pantone Colors" and are refered to as PMS colors.
Graphic Designers have a Solid to Process chart to match colors you can create on a computer, with the actual solid color inks. The match is never perfect, but it's about 99% close. The "correct" terminology is "CD Label", although
I prefer to call it a screen print so it doesn't get confused
with the stick-on label used with CDRs.